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Historically, my research interests have been in the area of plant ultrastructure. In particular, I have been interested in the use of the transmission electron microscope to study the ontogenetic development of specialized cell types such as vessel elements. I have also studied the ultrastructure of life cycle stages of the comparatively primitive lower vascular plants. My guidance of graduate student research has likewise been limited to transmission electron microscope studies and ultrastructural investigations of life cycle stages of ferns and fern allies. More recently, my professional interests have focused on acquiring exotic plant specimens to enlarge the teaching collection of live plants in the Conservatory of the Department of Biological Sciences.