Ten Teaching Strategies Suggested by Research
These ten simple tips can dramatically enhance student learning experiences.
(Adapted from the Center for Instructional Development & Research, University of Washington, by Tasha Souza)
1. Have students write about what they are learning.
“Learning is not a spectator sport. Students do not learn much just by sitting in class listening to teachers, memorizing prepackaged assignments, and spitting out answers. They must talk about what they are learning, write about it, relate it to past experiences, apply it to their daily lives. They must make what they learn part of themselves.” (Chickering & Gamson, 1987, p. 3)
2. Encourage faculty-student contact, in and out of class.
“Frequent interaction with faculty members is more strongly related to satisfaction with college than any other type of involvement, or, indeed, any other student or institutional characteristic.” (Astin, 1985, p. 133-151)
3. Get students working with one another on substantive tasks, in and out of class.
“Student’s academic performance and satisfaction at college are tied closely to involvement with faculty and other students around substantive work.” (Light, 1992, p. 18)
4. Give prompt and frequent feedback to students about their progress.
5. Communicate high expectations.
6. Make standards and grading criteria explicit.
7. Help students to achieve those expectations and criteria.
8. Respect diverse talents and ways of learning.
9. Use problems, questions, or issues, not merely content coverage, as points of entry into the subject and as sources of Motivation for sustained inquiry.
“Students learn what they care about and remember what they understand.” (Ericksen, 1984, p. 51)
10. Make courses assignment-centered rather than merely text-and lecture-centered. Then focus on helping students successfully complete the assignments.
Adapted from: Center for Instructional Development & Research, University of Washington, http://depts.washington.edu/cidrweb/resources/topics.html
Astin, A. (1985). Achieving Educational Excellence. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Bonwell, C. C. & Eison, J. A. (1991). Active Learning: Creating Excitement in the Classroom. ASHE–ERIC Higher Education Report No. 1. Washington, D.C.: George Washington University, School of Education and Human Development.
Chickering, A. W. & Gamson, Z.F. (1987). Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education. AAHE Bulletin, 39(7),3-7.
Ericksen, S. C. (1984). The Essence of Good Teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Feldman, K. A. (1988). Effective college teaching from the students’ and faculty’s view: matched or mismatched priorities? Research in Higher Education 28, 291–344.
Frost, S. H. (1991). Contact, involvement, and persistence: contributors to students’ success. Academic Advising for Student Success: A System of Shared Responsibility. ASHE–ERIC Higher Education Report No. 3. Washington, D.C.: George Washington University, School of Education and Human Development.
Kurfiss, J. (1987). Critical Thinking. ASHE–ERIC Higher Education Report No. 2. Washington, D.C.: George Washington University, School of Education and Human Development.
Light, R. J. (1992). The Harvard Assessment Seminars: Second Report. Harvard University School of Education.
Pascarella, E. T. and Terenzini, P.T. (1991). How College Affects Students. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Penrose, A. M. (1992) To write or not to write: effects of task and task interpretation on learning through writing. Written Communication 9, 465-500.